– Exhaust tube
– Intake air leaks
– Fuel injectors may be faulty
– Fuel injector leaks
– Spark plugs may be faulty
– Improper ignition timing
– Engine Control Module (ECM)
– Three way catalyst converter Bank 1 does not have enough oxygen storage capacity.
The Engine Control Module (ECM) monitors the switching frequency ratio of heated oxygen sensors 1 (front O2 sensor) and heated oxygen sensors 2 (rear O2 sensor).
A three way catalyst converter (Manifold) with high oxygen storage capacity will indicate a low switching frequency of heated oxygen sensor 2. As oxygen storage capacity decreases, the heated oxygen sensor 2 switching frequency will increase.
When the frequency ratio of heated oxygen sensors 1 and 2 approaches a specified limit value, the three way catalyst malfunction is diagnosed.